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6. Further information

British National Formulary—available online.

Martindale: the complete drug reference—available online.

Royal College of Psychiatrists. Benzodiazepines (external link) [expert advice written in plain language; accessed 28 February 2013].

Ashton H. Toxicity and adverse consequences of benzodiazepine use. Psychiatric Annals 1995: 25: 158–65

Ashton H. Benzodiazepine withdrawal: an unfinished story. Br med J 1984; 288: 1135–40

Information from MHRA

Note: References to older MHRA advice are included for background only; the information will have been incorporated into summaries of product characteristics and some will have been superseded.


Article title


Drug Safety Update, July 2011

Addiction to benzodiazepines and codeine: supporting safer use

Reminder of the potential for benzodiazepine dependence and the need to prescribe lowest effective dose for the shortest possible period.

Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance, January 1988

Benzodiazepines, dependence and withdrawal symptoms

Advice on appropriate use of benzodiazepines in anxiety and insomnia and on care with dose and duration.